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试题内容
    Poverty exists because American society is an unequal one, and there areoverwhelming political pressures to keep it that way. Any__1__to redistribute wealthand income in the United States will__2__be opposed by powerful middle- andupper-class interests. People can be relatively rich only if others are relatively poor, andsince power is__3__in the hands of the rich, public policies will continue to reflect theirinterests rather than those of the poor.
    As Herbert Gans (1973) has pointed out, poverty is actually.__4__from the point ofview of the nonpoor. Poverty__5__that "dirty" work gets done. If there are no poor peopleto scrub floors and empty bedpans ( 便盆 ) , these jobs would have to be__6__withhigh incomes before anyone would touch them. Poverty creates jobs for many of thenonpoor, such as police officers, weffare workers, pawnbrokers ( 典当商) , and governmentbureaucrats. Poverty makes life easier for the rich by providing them with cooks,gardeners, and other workers to perform basic chores while their employers enjoy morepleasurable activities. Poverty provides a market for__7__goods and services, such astwo-day-old bread, run-down automobiles, or the advice of__8__physicians and lawyers.
    There is no__9__, conscious "conspiracy ( 阴谋 ) " of the wealthy to keep the poor inpoverty. It is just that poverty is an inevitable__10__of the American economic system,which the poor are politically powerless to influence or change. 
A.attempt  
B.concentrated  
C.criticism   
D.deliberate   
E.dubiously 
F.endowed 
G.Ensures 
H.Functional 
I.Incompetent 
J.inevitably 
K.Inferior 
L.Invaluable 
M.Justifies 
N.Outcome 
O. rewarded 
1.[选词填空]
    • 解题思路:分析句子结构可知,此处空格所在句子的主语是poverty,空格前后有系动词is和介词短语from the point of view of the nonpoor,因此可以断定这里需要填入一个形容词或动词的过去分词形式,与is一起构成该句的系表结构。备选词汇中符合上述语法条件的过去分词还剩下endowed和rewarded;形容词则有:deliberate“故意的”,invaluable“无价的”,inferior“低劣的,次等的”,functional“功能的;起作用的”,incompetent“无能的”。结合下文可知,这里是指“贫穷具有功能和作用”,functional最为贴切,故选H。
    2.[选词填空]
      3.[选词填空]
        • 解题思路:分析句子主干可知,此处空格所在句子的结构较为完整,通过分析for_________goods and services可知,这里缺少的是一个形容词。由such as后列举的two-day-old bread和run-down automobiles可知,此处填/k inferior“低劣的,次等的”更贴合文意,故选K。
        4.[选词填空]
          • 解题思路:分析句子结构可知,此处空格所在句子的主语是attempt,谓语是will be opposed,因此可以判断此处缺少一个副词修饰谓语动词opposed。备选词汇中的副词有inevitably“不可避免地”和dubiously“怀疑地”两个。此处文意为“任何尝试都必将遭到反对”,只有inevitably符合语境,故选J。
          5.[选词填空]
            • 解题思路:分析句子结构可知,此处空格所在句子是一个由连词since引导的原因状语从句,从句的主语是power,空格前后是系动词is和介词短语in the hands ofthe rich,因此可以断定这里需要填入一个动词的过去分词,与is一起构成该句的系表结构。符合上述语法条件的备选词汇有三个:endowed“赋予,捐助”,rewarded“回报”,concentrated“集中”。结合此处文意,只有concentrated可以与power is…in the hands of the rich搭配使用,意为“权利集中在富人手里”,故选B。
            6.[选词填空]
              • 解题思路:根据空格前的介词of和空格后的名词,判断应填入一个形容词,修饰名词physicians和lawyers。符合语法条件的备选形容词中,只有incompetent“无能的”符合此处语境,故选I。
              7.[选词填空]
                • 解题思路:分析句子结构可知,此处空格所在句子缺少主语,其后的动词不定式短语to redistribute wealth and income in the United States作句子主语的后置定语,结合空格前的any可以断定这里需要填人一个名词。在备选词汇中有三个名词:attempt“尝试,企图”,criticism“批评”,outcome“结果”。结合句意,此处应是指“任何……的尝试”,且attempt后可接不定式作其定语,故选A。
                8.[选词填空]
                  • 解题思路:分析句子结构可知,此处空格所在句子的主语是poverty,其后是that引导的宾语从句,因此可以断定这里需要一个动词作该句子的谓语。由主语poverty以及宾语从句的谓语动词gets的时态可知,这里需要填入一个动词的第三人称单数形式。符合语法条件的备选词汇有两个:ensures“确保,保证”和justifies“证明……正确”。此处文意为“贫穷可以确保脏活儿有人干”,ensure符合语境,故选G。
                  9.[选词填空]
                    • 解题思路:分析句子结构可知,此处空格所在句子的主语是jobs,空格前后分别是系动词be和介词短语with high incomes,因此可以断定这里需要填入一个形容词或动词的过去分词,和would have to be一起构成该句的谓语部分。备选词汇中能够将jobs与high incomes良好衔接起来的只有rewarded“酬谢;回报”,故选O。
                    10.[选词填空]
                      • 解题思路:分析句子结构可知,这里缺少的是一个形容词,它与其后的conscious“自觉的,有意的”一起作名词conspiracy的定语,而且该词与conscious在意义上很接近。在备选形容词中,只有deliberate“有意的,故意的”符合此处文意,故选D。
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                      • 参考答案:H,,K,J,B,I,A,G,O,D
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