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Passage Two
 Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
  What can be done about mass unemployment? All the wise heads agree: there’re no quick or any answers. There’s work to be done, but workers aren’t ready to do it—they’re in the wrong places, or they have the wrong skills. Our problems are “structural,” and will take many years to solve.
  But don’t bother asking for evidence that justifies this bleak view. There isn’t any. On the contrary, all the facts suggest that high unemployment in America is the result of inadequate demand. Saying that there’re no easy answers sounds wise, but it’s actually foolish: our unemployment crisis could be cured very quickly if we had the intellectual clarity and political will to act. In other words, structural unemployment is a fake problem, which mainly serves as an excuse for not pursuing real solutions.
  The fact is job openings have plunged in every major sector, while the number of workers forced into part-time employment in almost all industries has soared. Unemployment has surged in every major occupational category. Only three states, with a combined population not much larger than that of Brooklyn, have unemployment rates below 5%. So the evidence contradicts the claim that we’re mainly suffering from structural unemployment. Why, then, has this claim become so popular?
  Part of the answer is that this is what always happens during periods of high unemployment—in part because experts and analysts believe that declaring the problem the problem deeply rooted, with no easy answers, makes them sound serious.
  I’ve been looking at what self-proclaimed experts were saying about unemployment during the Great Depression; it was almost identical to what Very Serious People are saying now. Unemployment cannot be brought down rapidly, declared one 1935 analysis, because the workforce is “unadaptable and untrained. It cannot respond to the opportunities which industry may offer.” A few years later, a large defense buildup finally provided a fiscal stimulus adequate to the economy’s needs—and suddenly industry was eager to employ those “unadaptable and untrained” workers.
  But now, as then, powerful forces are ideologically opposed to the whole idea of government action on a sufficient scale to jump-start the economy. And that, fundamentally, is why claims that we face huge structural problems have been multiplying: they offer a reason to do nothing about the mass unemployment that is crippling our economy and our society.
  So what you need to know is that there’s no evidence whatsoever to back these claims. We aren’t suffering from a shortage of needed skills; we’re suffering from a lack of policy resolve. As I said, structural unemployment isn’t real problem, it’s an excuse—a reason not to act on America’s problems at a time when action is desperately needed.

1.[单选题]What does the author think is the root cause of mass unemployment in America?
  • A.Corporate mismanagement.
  • B.Insufficient demand.
  • C.Technological advances.
  • D.Workers’ slow adaptation.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题干中的 cause 和 mass unemployment in america 定位至第 2 段第 3 句。 【解析】本题询问作者认为美国大规模失业的根本原因是什么。第 2 段首先否定了第 1 段末所述的“结构性失业”的说法,然后第 3 句指出,所有的事实表明,美国的高失业率其实是需求不足造成的,进而分析了“结构性失业”说法的愚蠢性。b 项中 insufficient 是原文 inadequate 的同义替换,所以选 b 项“需求不足”。
2.[单选题]What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?
  • A. To testify to the experts’ analysis of America’s problems.
  • B. To offer a feasible solution to the structural unemployment.
  • C.To show the urgent need for the government to take action.
  • D.To alert American workers to the urgency for adaptation.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题干中的 author's purpose 可查找至最后一段。 【解析】本题询问作者写这篇文章用意何在。文章最后一段作者呼吁读者不要相信那些所谓“专家们”的说辞,它们根本没有依据可言。进而其谴责政府的不作为,“我们缺少的并不是必要的技能,而是政府的政策决心。”作者的根本目的是吁请政府采取实际行动来解决目前的问题。c 项中 urgent need 对应原文的 desperately needed,因此 c 项“表达需要政府采取行动的迫切性”正确。
3.[单选题]What does the author say helped bring down unemployment during the Great Depression?
  • A.The booming defense industry.
  • B.The wise heads’ benefit package.
  • C.Nationwide training of workers.
  • D.Thorough restructuring of industries.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题干中的 the great depression 定位至第 5 段。 【解析】本题询问作者认为是什么帮助解决了经济大萧条时期大规模失业问题。根据第 5 段最后一句,一个庞大的国防计划最终促成了一个财政刺激方案,其足以满足经济需求,很快各行业就急切雇佣了那些“适应能力差、没有经过培训”的工人们。简言之,庞大的国防计划刺激了经济,带动了就业。所以 a 项“蓬勃的国防工业”是正确答案。
4.[单选题]What does the author think of the expert’s claim concerning unemployment?
  • A.Self-evident.
  • B. Thought-provoking.
  • C.Irrational.
  • D.Groundless.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题干中的 experts' claim, the author 可查找到第 2、3 段。
    【解析】本题询问作者如何看待专家们关于失业的论断。在第 2 段第 1、2 句作者规劝读者不要费力去寻求证据来证明这种黯淡的观点的合理性,因为根本没有证据。继而,在第 3 段给出一些例证,并得出结论,该证据有力地反驳了“我们主要遭受结构性失业”的措辞。由此,可选定 d 项“没有根据的”。
5.[单选题]What has caused claims of huge structural problems to multiply?
  • A.Powerful opposition to government’s stimulus efforts.
  • B.Very Serious People’s attempt to cripple the economy.
  • C.Evidence gathered from many sectors of the industries.
  • D. Economists’ failure to detect the problem in time.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题干中的 claim, huge structural problems 和 multiply 定位至倒数第 2 段第 2 句。 【解析】本题询问是什么导致了“巨大的结构性问题”论断的盛行。倒数第 2 段第 1 句指出:权势者在思想上反对政府采取足够规模的行动来刺激经济,这就从根本上解释了为什么“我们面临严重的结构性问题”的说法如此盛行。a 项中 stimulus 对应原文的 jump-start,故选 a 项“政府刺激经杯的努力遭到强有力的反对”。
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  • 参考答案:B,C,A,D,A
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