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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section C】
试题内容

 Section C
 Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
       
Facing water shortages and escalating fertilizer costs, farmers in developing countries are using raw sewage(下水道污水)to irrigate and fertilize nearly 49 million acres of cropland, according to a new report—and it may not be a bad thing.
  While the practice carries serious health risks for many, those dangers are outweighed by the social and economic gains for poor urban farmers and consumers who need affordable food.
  "There is a large potential for wastewater agriculture to both help and hurt great numbers of urban consumers," said Liqa Raschid-Sally, who led the study.
  The report focused on poor urban areas, where farms in or near cities supply relatively inexpensive food. Most of these operations draw irrigation water from local rivers or lakes. Unlike developed cities, however, these areas lack advanced water-treatment facilities, and rivers effectively become sewers(下水道).
  When this water is used for agricultural irrigation, farmers risk absorbing disease-causing bacteria, as do consumers who eat the produce raw and unwashed. Nearly 2.2 million people die a year because of diarrhea-related (与腹泻相关的) diseases, according to WHO statistics. More than 80% of those cases can be attributed to contact with contaminated water and a lack of proper sanitation. But Pay Drechsel, an environmental scientist, argues that the social and economic benefits of using untreated human waste to grow food outweigh the health risks.
  Those dangers can be addressed with farmer and consumer education, he said, while the free water and nutrients from human waste can help urban farmers in developing countries to escape poverty.
  Agriculture is a water-intensive business, accounting for nearly 70% of global fresh water consumption.
  In poor, dry regions, untreated wastewater is the only viable irrigation source to keep farmers in business. In some cases, water is so scarce that farmers break open sewage pipes transporting waste to local rivers.
  Irrigation is the primary agricultural use of human waste in the developing world. But frequently untreated human waste harvested from lavatories is delivered to farms and spread as fertilizer.
  In most cases, the human waste is used on grain crops, which are eventually cooked, minimizing the risk of transmitting water-borne diseases. With fertilizer prices jumping nearly 50% per metric ton over the last year in some places, human waste is an attractive, and often necessary, alternative.
  In cases where sewage mud is used, expensive chemical fertilizer use can be avoided. The mud contains the same critical nutrients.
  “Overly strict standards often fail,” James Bartram, a WHO water-health expert, said. “We need to accept that fact across much of the planet, so waste with little or no treatment will be used in agriculture for good reason.”

1.[单选题]What does Pay Dreschsel think of the risks involved in using untreated human waste for farming?
  • A.They have been somewhat exaggerated.
  • B.They can be dealt with through education.
  • C.They will be minimized with new technology.
  • D.They can be addressed by improved sanitation.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题干中的人名 Pay Drechsel 及 the risks 定位至第 6 段。【解析】本题考查的是 Pay Drechsel 对未经处理的人类排泄物用于农业带来的风险的看法,第六段开头提到这个问题可以通过教育农民和消费者来解决,B 项的 dealt with 是原句 addressed 的同义转述,B 项“可通过教育规避其风险”是正确答案。
2.[单选题]What is environmental scientist Pay Drechsel's attitude towards the use of untreated human waste in agriculture?
  • A.Favorable.
  • B.Indifferent.
  • C.Skeptical.
  • D.Responsible.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题干中的人名 Pay Drechsel 定位至第 5 段末句。【解析】本题考查的是 Pay Drechsel 对将未经处理的人类排泄物用于农业的态度,原文第 5 段末句提到他认为使用未经处理的人类排泄物灌溉农田所带来的社会和经济效益比其带来的健康危害重要。说明他支持这一做法,A 项“赞同的”符合题意。
3.[单选题]What is the main problem caused by the use of wastewater for irrigation?
  • A.Rivers and lakes nearby will gradually become contaminated.
  • B.It will drive producers of chemical fertilizers out of business.
  • C. Farmers and consumers may be affected by harmful bacteria.
  • D.It will make the farm produce less competitive on the market.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题目关键词 the use of wastewater for irrigation 可定位至第 5 段。【解析】本题询问污水灌溉导致的主要问题,C 项“农民和消费者都可能受到有害细菌的影响”是对第 5 段首句的概括,符合文意。
4.[单选题]What does the author say about the use of raw sewage for farming?
  • A.Its risks cannot be overestimated.
  • B.It should be forbidden altogether.
  • C.Its benefits outweigh the hazards involved.
  • D.It is polluting millions of acres of cropland.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题目关键词 the use of raw sewage for farming 可知是问有关污水在农业上使用的信息,考查的是考生对整体篇章的理解能力,定位到全文。【解析】C 项“其利大于弊”是对第 2 段“那些健康危险远不及社会效益和经济贡献重要”的同义转换,符合文意。
5.[单选题]What do we learn about James Bartram's position on the use of human waste for farming?
  • A.He echoes Pay Drechsel's opinion on the issue.
  • B.He challenges Liqa Raschid-Sally's conclusion.
  • C.He thinks it the only way out of the current food erisis.
  • D.He deems it indispensable for combating global poverty.
  • 解题思路:【定位】根据题干中的人名 James Bartram 定位至最后一段的最后一句。【解析】本题考查的是 James Bartram 对人类排泄物用于农业的观点,原文最后他说稍加处理或没有经过处理的排泄物用于农业是有充分理由的,可见他认为将人类排泄物用于农业有其存在的合理性。而从原文第 5 段可知,Pay Drechsel 认为尽管这种做法有危害,但是它带来的社会和经济效益比其危害更重要。因此 A 项“在这个问题上他和 Pay Drechsel 的观点一致”为正确答案。
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  • 参考答案:B,A,C,C,A
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