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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
试题内容
AstrologyA) Astrology is the study of how the sun, the moon, planets, and stars are supposedly related to life and events on the earth. It is based on the belief that the heavenly bodies form patterns that can reveal a person’s character or future. Many people throughout the world believe in astrology. These people base important decisions on the advice of an astrologer (a person who tells fortunes by studying the stars). Other people declare there is no scientific basis for astrology, and they consider it a form of entertainment. 
B) Astrology differs from astronomy. Astrology developed from a set of principles that originated more than2, 000 years ago. At that time, astronomy was also based on those same principles. But during the l500’s and 1600’s, several astronomers, including Nicolaus Copernicus of Poland and Tycho Brahe of Denmark, made discoveries about the heavenly bodies that conflicted with the principles of astrology. As a result, astrology and astronomy became widely different in their methods and purposes. Today, astrologers observe the heavenly bodies to understand things that happen on the earth. Astronomers seek scientific knowledge about the various objects in space. 
Principles of astrology
C) The basic principle of astrology is that the heavenly bodies influence what happens on the earth. Astrologers learn about this influence by casting(drawing)a circular chart called a horoscope or birth chart. A horoscope shows the position of the planets in relation to both the earth and the stars at a certain time. In most cases, it shows the position of these bodies at the time of a person’s birth. The system used by astrologers to cast a horoscope is based on a special view of the universe. This view involves four elements(1)the earth, (2)the planets, (3)the zodiac(黄道), and(4)the houses. The earth. In casting a horoscope, astrologers place the earth at the center of the solar system. Therefore, all heavenly bodies-revolve around the earth rather than around the sun. Astrologers use this arrangement to determine the positions of the heavenly bodies in relation to the earth. They believe that the study of the positions of the heavenly bodies can reveal a person’s character and future. 
D) The planets. In astrology, the moon and the sun are considered planets, along with Jupiter, Mars, Neptune, Pluto, Saturn, Uranus, and Venus. Each planet supposedly represents a force that affects people in a certain way. Astrologers believe the planets influence a person more than do any other heavenly bodies. The zodiac is a band of stars that appear to encircle the earth. It is divided into12 equal parts, called signs. Each sign of the zodiac has certain characteristics, which are determined by a particular planet and other factors. Astrologers believe the signs determine how the planets affect a person’s character. The houses. Like the zodiac, the earth’s surface is divided into12 parts. Each of these parts, called houses, represents certain characteristics of an individual’s life. Astrologers believe the houses determine how the planets and the signs influence a person’s daily life. 
History
E) Astrology began sometime before 2000 B. C. in Babylonia(now southeastern Iraq). Astrologers of that time knew of five planets—Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Saturn and Venus. They believed that the sun, the moon, and planets sent out different forces, which had certain characteristics. For example, one of the planets—now known as Mars—appeared to be red. Astrologers linked it with anger, aggression and war. 
F) The zodiac was probably developed in ancient Egypt, and the Babylonians adopted it sometime after l000 B. C. Astrologers gradually developed a system that linked seasonal changes with specific group of stars called constellations(星座). At that time, for example, heavy rainfall occurred in Babylonia when the sun was in a certain constellation. As a result, astrologers named the constellation Aquarius, the water bearer. 
G) At first, astrologers studied the heavenly bodies in making general predictions about the future. But between 600 B. C. and 200 B. C. , they developed the system of casting individual horoscopes(以占星术算命). The ancient Greeks and Romans practiced astrology and greatly influenced its development. The Roman names for the planets and the signs of the zodiac are still used today. 
H) Interest in astrology declined in Europe with the coming of Christianity as people sought guidance from religious leaders rather than from astrologers. Astrology regained popularity during the A. D. 1100’s. By the1600’s, it was particularly strong in England. Several astrological almanacs (历书)were published, and many other books either defended or attacked astrology. The number of followers of astrology fell in England during the 1700’s, but the subject’s popularity returned again in the early 1800’s. By the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, interest in astrology had spread to many other nations. Newspapers in England began publishing horoscope columns during the 1930’s. Such columns soon appeared in newspapers throughout the world, and people became increasingly interested in astrology. Today, astrology is followed more widely than ever before. 
Astrology today
I) Many people believe astrology is simply a superstition, and scientists declare that its whole basis is unscientific. Scientists point out that the earth’s position has changed in space since ancient times. As a result, the signs of the zodiac used by astrologers no longer match the constellations for which they were named. Some people who believe in astrology support it in terms of magnetic fields, solar storms and other natural occurrences. Others, though they also believe in astrology, claim that it cannot be supposed scientifically. They consider it a set of powerful symbols that can provide a deep understanding of human beings. They defend astrology by pointing out that, in many cases, it works.
1.[选词填空]Publishing horoscope columns in newspapers helped to make astrology spread across the world widely.
    • 解题思路:由题干中newspapers定位至H段。该段指出了英格兰的报纸在1930’s开始刊登占星专栏,很快全世界的报纸上都出现了这些专栏,人们对占星术的兴趣日益增加。故匹配段落为H段。
    2.[选词填空]Astrologers hold the belief that the planets exert more influence on a person than other heavenly bodies.
      • 解题思路:由题干信息定位至D段。本段提到占星家们相信, 行星比其他任何天体更能对人产生影响。故匹配段落为D段。
      3.[选词填空]During the 1700’s in England astrology gained less popularity than before.
        • 解题思路:由题干中1700’s in England定位至H段。本段讲到英格兰的占星术拥护者数量在1700’s期间减少了。故匹配段落为H段。
        4.[选词填空]The names for the planets and the signs of zodiac used in astrology today were originally devised by the Roman.
          • 解题思路:由题干中The names for the planets and the signs of zodiac可定位至G段。本段讲到沿用到现在的行星和星座的名称是古罗马人的叫法, 即表明这些名称是由罗马人创造的。故匹配段落为G段。
          5.[选词填空]The discoveries of heavenly bodies that were against the principles of astrology revealed great differences between astrology and astronomy in their methods and purposes.
            • 解题思路:由题意可定位至B段。本段讲到,这样导致的结果是,天文学和占卜术在方法和目的方面出现巨大的差异。故匹配段落为B段。
            6.[选词填空]It’s believed by the astrologers that the houses determine how the planets and the signs influence a person’s daily life.
              • 解题思路:由题干中the houses定位至D段。本段讲到, 占星家们相信, 这些宫决定了行星和星座如何影响一个人的日常生活。故匹配段落为D段。
              7.[选词填空]In astrology, the earth is regarded as the center of the solar system.
                • 解题思路:由题干中the earth定位至C段。本段讲到在占星术里, 地球被当作太阳系的中心。故匹配段落为C段。
                8.[选词填空]Whenever the sun was in the constellation Aquarius, it rained heavily in Babylonia.
                  • 解题思路:由题干中the constellation Aquarius定位至F段。由本段可知,当太阳位于水瓶座时在古巴比伦就会下雨。故匹配段落为F段。
                  9.[选词填空]Astrology is based on the conviction that the patterns the heavenly bodies form can tell a person’s character or future.
                    • 解题思路:甴题意可定位至A段。首先提出占星术研究的对象,然后讲到它的依据是,人们认为天体的形状能够反映一个人的性格或将来。故匹配段落为A段。
                    10.[选词填空]Since Mars appeared to be red, astrologers believed that it represented anger, aggression and war.
                      • 解题思路:由题干中Mars定位至E段。文中举例讲到,占星家将火星的红色与愤怒、侵略和战争联系起来, 即他们认为火星代表了这些东西。故匹配段落为E段。
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                      • 参考答案:H,D,H,G,B,D,C,F,A,E
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