微信刷题,考证常用
  • 所属考试大学英语四级试题库
  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section B】
试题内容
Ancient Egyptian SculptureA) In order to understand ancient Egyptian art, it is vital to know as much as possible of the elite Egyptians' view of the world and the functions and contexts of the art produced for them. Without this knowledge we can appreciate only the formal content of Egyptian art, and we will fail to understand why it was produced or the concepts that shaped it and caused it to adopt its distinctive forms. 
B ) In fact, a lack of understanding concerning the purposes of Egyptian art has often led it to be compared unfavorably with the art of other cultures: Why did the Egyptians not develop sculpture in which the body turned and twisted through space like classical Greek statuary? Why do the artists seem to get left and right confused? And why did they not discover the geometric perspective as European artists did in the Renaissance? The answer to such questions has nothing to do with a lack of skill or imagination on the part of Egyptian artists and everything to do with the purposes for which they were producing their art.
C) The majority of three-dimensional representations, whether standing, seated, or kneeling, exhibit what is called frontality: they face straight ahead, neither twisting nor turning. When such statues are viewed in isolation, out of their original context and without knowledge of their function, it is easy to criticize them for their rigid attitudes that remained unchanged for three thousand years. Frontality is, however, directly related to the functions of Egyptian statuary and the contexts in which the statues were set up. Statues were created not for their decorative effect but to play a primary role in the cults of the gods, the king, and the dead. They were designed to be put in places where these beings could manifest themselves in order to be the recipients of ritual actions. Thus it made sense to show the statue looking ahead at what was happening in front of it, so that the living performer of the ritual could interact with the divine or deceased recipient.
D) Very often such statues were enclosed in rectangular shrines or wall niches whose only opening was at the front, making it natural for the statue to display frontality. Other statues were designed to be placed within an architectural setting, for instance, in front of the monumental entrance gateways to temples known as pylons, or in pillared courts, where they would be placed against or between pillars: their frontality worked perfectly within the architectural context.
E) Statues were normally made of stone, wood, or metal. Stone statues were worked from single rectangular blocks of material and retained the compactness of the original shape.. The stone between the arms and the body and between the legs in standing figures or the legs and the seat in seated ones was not normally cut away. From a practical aspect this protected the figures against breakage and psycho- logically gives the images a sense of strength and power, usually enhanced by a supporting back pillar. By contrast, wooden statues were carved from several pieces of wood that were pegged together to form the finished work, and metal statues were either made by wrapping sheet metal around a
wooden core or cast by the lost wax process.
F) The arms could be held away from the body and carry separate items in their hands; there is no back pillar. The effect is altogether lighter and freer than that achieved in stone, but because both perform the same function, formal wooden and metal statues still display frontality.
G) Apart from statues representing deities, kings, and named members of the elite that can be called formal, there is another group of three-dimensional representations that depicts generic figures, frequently servants, from the non-elite population. The function of these is quite different. Many are made to be put in the tombs of the elite in order to serve the tomb owners in the afterlife. Unlike formal statues that are limited to static poses of standing, sitting, and kneeling, these figures depict a wide range of actions, such as grinding grain, baking bread, producing pots, and making music, and they are shown in appropriate poses, bending and squatting as they carry out their tasks.
H) It is suggested that one choose something to read about the archaeology before he goes to carry on the research. It is interesting that many try to understand the old things in their own perspective. One tends to consider that the big bowl is for the ancient male and the small one for the female because that is basically the case in the world now. However, in most of the ancient time, female individuals use the bigger one instead of their husbands because there used to be a period--or there is in some remote are-as-when the mother enjoys a greater respect over the father. That is very different from today's situation.
I) No one is sure of the reason for setting the statues into the tomb. The first group thinks that the servants taking the forms of the statues would still be with those who died there, in the afterlife. There come the same cases in other Asian countries including China, Japan and India. And there may be something more horrific. In the ancient China, nobles seldom died lonely since shortly after their death, their emperors would choose some children to follow them. And this is said to set up a group of servants who would make service for the dead. However, the second group counters this opinion by saying that this may be a way to reserve the love from the living family members and from other friends. When laid in the tomb, the servants could represent those who love the dead and still be with them. 
1.[选词填空]The wooden statue is altogether lighter and freer than that achieved in stone.
    • 解题思路:根据lighter and freer定位到F段中间,虽然原句没有出现wooden这个词语,然而根据E段最后一句可以推知F段的the effect就是指the effect of wooden statue。
    2.[选词填空]The majority of three-dimensional representations exhibit what is called frontality.
      • 解题思路:这道题一定要根据three-dimensional中间的连词符号来定位,很快定位到C段第一句,题干就是原句的简化版。
      3.[选词填空]It is suggested that one choose something to read about the archaeology before he goes to carry on the research.
        • 解题思路:这道题有两种定位方式,长定位和短定位。长定位使用archaeology这个单词。短定位结合It is…句型。巧妙方法为将两种方式进行组合,快速得出答案。定位到H段第一句。
        4.[选词填空]The ancient Egyptian statues were normally made of stone, wood, or metal.
          • 解题思路:根据三种表示质地的材料可以很快定位到E段的第一句。虽然原句没有the ancient Egyptian这个定语,然而根据上下文,知道这个题干表述是正确的。
          5.[选词填空]Without certain knowledge we will fail to understand why the sculpture was produced.
            • 解题思路:根据knowledge和fail to understand定位到A段,题干中用certain替换了原文当中的this,同时句子缩短。
            6.[选词填空]There are the same cases in other Asian countries including China, Japan and India.
              • 解题思路:这道题根据China,Ja.pan and India直接定位到最后一段,不假思索即可选出。
              7.[选词填空]The frontality of the statues worked perfectly within the architectural context.
                • 解题思路:根据单词perfectly,within. architectural context很快定位到D段。可以发现该段最后一句的their frontality被替换成了the frontality of the statues。
                8.[选词填空]The Egyptians did not develop sculpture in which the body turned and twisted through space like classical Greek statuary.
                  • 解题思路:根据Egyptians和Greek statuary可以同时定位到B段,原句是“Why did the Egyptians not develop sculpture in which the body turned and twisted through space like classical Greek statuary?
                  9.[选词填空]Something is made to be put in the tombs of the elite in order to serve the tomb owners in the afterlife.
                    • 解题思路:这道题需要使用tombs,serve,afterlife等单词定位.于是定位到G段第三句,原句中的many被题干中的something所替换。
                    10.[选词填空]The arms could be separated from the body and carry separate items in their hands.
                      • 解题思路:根据arms,separated,hands定位到F段第一句,可以发现原句是beheld away from the body,意思就是手臂和身体中间有镂空的部分,没有连在一起,可以转换为题干中的separated。
                      大学英语四级在线题库
                      • 参考答案:F,C,H,E,I,I,D,B,G,F
                      qq分分彩规则 qq分分彩开户 qq分分彩全天计划 qq分分彩|直播 qq分分彩在线预测 qq分分彩在线人工计划 qq分分彩免费开户 qq分分彩登入投注 qq分分彩开户网址 qq分分彩网上购买